Risk-related Resettlement and Relocation in Urban Areas: A Diagnostic for India
As part of the ‘Reducing relocation risk in Urban Areas’ project which examines the various social and economic implications of climate-risk related resettlement and relocation policies in cities across three geographies (India, Uganda, and Peru, Colombia and Mexico in Latin America), the team from IIHS conducted a preliminary diagnostic review of the context of risk-related resettlement in India. The aim of this diagnostic report is to learn more about the existing work on resettlements and relocations in India, both in literature as well as practice, and find gaps that can help improve the outcomes of such projects for people and cities at large. The aim is also to understand the context at the country and city-level in relation to the nature of climate-induced risks and how societal structures manifest themselves in location choices and affect exposure. The report also aims to learn how land use planning and resettlement policies, and legal and normative frameworks work at the regional, national and local levels. This diagnostic work will lead to the selection of site-specific case studies. The methods include a review of country and city-specific literature on disaster risks and urban development, which will be complemented by consultations with local experts and key-informant interviews and workshops. The objectives for this work are as follows: Identify the factors that contribute to and define urban climate-related risk and systematise information on the legal and policy frameworks and guidelines governing ‘resettlement’ (and relocation) of affected communities. Define a typology of approaches to reducing climate risk for urban communities including relocation, and gauge their relative importance in achieving socially just outcomes for individuals and communities, as well as for society. This work will further lead into inquiring about the following issues in the next phases: Define and characterise the underlying rationale and decision process associated with resettlement strategies enacted in different urban geographical contexts. Compare similar and different types of solutions enacted across continents, systematise costs and benefits and lessons learned; advantages and disadvantages with regard to a reduction of future economic and social costs; and best policies for maximising beneficial outcomes.