Climate Resilient Containment Solutions for OSS to Enhance Public Health and Environmental Sustainability

Yohananthan, S., Jeevanraj, S., Niladri Chakraborti, Sundari, R   | 2023


Climate change poses significant challenges to public health and environment in the twenty-first century. In low and lower-middle-income countries (LMICs), on-site sanitation (OSS) is the primary method of wastewater management. However, climate change impacts on OSS systems can lead to ecological and soil structure alterations, floating occurrences, fluctuations in system performance due to temperature changes, and increased odour levels. To address these challenges, this study piloted climate-resilient and feasible containment improvements at the bulk generator and individual household levels in an urban poor settlement, Trichy. These improvements incorporated novel technologies such as improved septic tanks, RCC circular septic tanks, and a simplified effluent chlorine disinfection system to ensure proper functionality of OSS and sustain public health. The results of the implementation showed a reduction efficiency of 60% to 70% and 97% to 94% for BOD and COD with RCC circular septic tanks and improved septic tanks, respectively. The effluent disinfection system effectively controlled disease-causing pathogens and water pollution, meeting the required standards