City-level Decoupling: Urban Resource Flows and the Governance of Infrastructure Transitions.



Progress in terms of economic and social development over the last century has been largely achieved through the extensive use of our planet’s finite resources. Resource exploitation already exceeds the Earth’s biological capacity, endangering the fundamental economic, social and environmental systems on which our development relies. However, significant potential exists for improved resource productivity through technological innovation and demand changes over the whole resource life cycle, from the extraction and use of raw materials to end of life disposal. While this will require enormous political commitment and financial investment, if the situation is not addressed, actual costs to nations at a later stage are likely to be much higherties?